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Vascular Disorders in Animals

By

Susan M. Cotter

, DVM, DACVIM (Small Animal Internal Medicine and Oncology), Tufts University

Last full review/revision May 2019 | Content last modified Jun 2019

Congenital Vascular Disorders in Animals

Cutaneous asthenia (Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, rubber puppy disease) is caused by a defect in the maturation of type I collagen. This causes weak structural support of blood vessels and can result in hematoma formation and easy bruising. The disorder has been reported in dogs, cats, mink, horses, cattle, sheep, and people but is rare in domestic animals. The most striking clinical abnormality is loose, hyperextensible skin that tears easily. No treatment is available.

Acquired Vascular Disorders in Animals

Several diseases cause severe, often generalized vasculitis and are characterized by bleeding disorders.

Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, which is transmitted by the ticks Dermacentor variabilis and D andersoni. The rickettsial organisms invade endothelial cells and cause cellular death with resultant perivascular edema and hemorrhage. Variable degrees of coagulation cascade activation can occur along with thrombocytopenia. Infected dogs may have epistaxis, petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages, hematuria, melena, or retinal hemorrhages. In severely affected dogs, DIC may occur.

Canine herpesvirus generally affects puppies 7–21 days old. Generalized necrotizing vasculitis is accompanied by perivascular hemorrhage. The disease is usually rapidly fatal, and most puppies die within 24 hours after showing signs.

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Circulatory
In all animals, congenital heart defects can cause abnormal shunting of blood. Left-to-right shunts cause blood to be recirculated through the pulmonary vessels and can result in chamber dilatation. Right-to-left shunts cause blood to bypass the pulmonary vessels and can cause cyanosis. Which of the following conditions is most likely to result in a right-to-left heart shunt?
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