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Coagulation Tests in Hepatic Disease in Small Animals

By

Sharon A. Center

, BS, DVM, DACVIM, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University

Last full review/revision May 2015 | Content last modified May 2015

Coagulation abnormalities can develop as a result of decreased synthesis or activation of coagulation factors and anticoagulant proteins produced in the liver (ie, factors V, VII, IX, X, XI, XII, fibrinogen, prothrombin, antithrombin, protein C, plasminogen, α2-macroglobulin, and α1-antitrypsin). Decreased enteric absorption of fat-soluble vitamins can lead to vitamin K–responsive bleeding in animals with EHBDO or bile duct immunoinjury (feline sclerosing cholangitis), or in cats with HL. Cats with liver disease appear predisposed to vitamin K–responsive coagulopathies. Conventional coagulation assessments may not reflect impending coagulopathies that remain unsuspected after physical examination, analysis of urine or feces, or mucosal bleeding time test. Dogs with congenital or acquired portosystemic shunting usually develop low protein C activity (<70% activity) that seemingly reflects the severity of portosystemic shunting. Although coagulation factors may be significantly lower in some of these dogs than in age-matched control groups, symptomatic coagulopathy is rare.

OTHER TOPICS IN THIS CHAPTER

Hepatic Disease in Small Animals
Overview of Hepatic Disease in Small Animals
Hematology in Hepatic Disease in Small Animals
Coagulation Tests in Hepatic Disease in Small Animals
Enzyme Activity in Hepatic Disease in Small Animals
Other Serum Biochemical Measures in Hepatic Disease in Small Animals
Hepatic Function Tests in Small Animals
Imaging in Hepatic Disease in Small Animals
Cholecystocentesis in Hepatic Disease in Small Animals
Liver Cytology in Small Animals
Liver Biopsy in Small Animals
Pathologic Changes in Bile in Small Animals
Nutrition in Hepatic Disease in Small Animals
Fulminant Hepatic Failure in Small Animals
Hepatic Encephalopathy in Small Animals
Portal Hypertension and Ascites in Small Animals
Portosystemic Vascular Malformations in Small Animals
Acquired Portosystemic Shunts in Small Animals
Other Hepatic Vascular Disorders in Small Animals
Hepatotoxins in Small Animals
Infectious Diseases of the Liver in Small Animals
Feline Hepatic Lipidosis
Biliary Cirrhosis in Small Animals
Canine Cholangiohepatitis
Canine Chronic Hepatitis
Lobular Dissecting Hepatitis in Small Animals
Canine Vacuolar Hepatopathy
Metabolic Diseases Affecting the Liver in Small Animals
Hepatocutaneous Syndrome in Small Animals
Nodular Hyperplasia in Small Animals
Hepatic Neoplasia in Small Animals
Miscellaneous Liver Diseases in Small Animals
Diseases of the Gallbladder and Extrahepatic Biliary System in Small Animals
Cholecystitis in Small Animals
Canine Gallbladder Mucocele
Other Disorders of the Gallbladder in Small Animals
Other Disorders of the Bile Ducts in Small Animals
Extrahepatic Bile Duct Obstruction in Small Animals
Cholelithiasis in Small Animals
Biliary Tree Rupture and Bile Peritonitis in Small Animals
Feline Cholangitis/Cholangiohepatitis Syndrome
Hepatobiliary Fluke Infection in Small Animals
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