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Nodular Hyperplasia in Small Animals

By

Sharon A. Center

, BS, DVM, DACVIM, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University

Last full review/revision May 2015 | Content last modified May 2015

Nodular hyperplasia (proliferative hepatocytes maintaining single-celled hepatic cord architecture with normal reticulin support) occurs as a benign, age-related microscopic or grossly apparent small mass lesion in dogs. It is often associated with a VH, lacks a defining remodeled border (as characterizes regenerative nodules), and may be confused histologically with adenomatous hyperplasia or hepatic adenoma (demonstrating proliferative disorganized hepatocytes forming thick hepatic cords with diminished reticulin support). Although nodular hyperplasia does not cause clinical disease, it can be accompanied by increased liver enzyme activity, particularly ALP. Unless the liver is diffusely remodeled with nodular lesions (secondary to degenerative VH), TSBA concentrations remain normal. Ultrasonographically, nodular hyperplasia is associated with hypoechoic hepatic nodules set against a hyperechoic background (if associated with glycogen-like VH). Cytology of an aspirate may discriminate dysplastic, neoplastic, or inflammatory cells but cannot exclude any of these disorders. Biopsy is necessary to differentiate between nodular hyperplasia, dysplastic microscopic nodules, regenerative nodules, cirrhosis, and neoplasia.

OTHER TOPICS IN THIS CHAPTER
Hepatic Disease in Small Animals
Overview of Hepatic Disease in Small Animals
Hematology in Hepatic Disease in Small Animals
Coagulation Tests in Hepatic Disease in Small Animals
Enzyme Activity in Hepatic Disease in Small Animals
Other Serum Biochemical Measures in Hepatic Disease in Small Animals
Hepatic Function Tests in Small Animals
Imaging in Hepatic Disease in Small Animals
Cholecystocentesis in Hepatic Disease in Small Animals
Liver Cytology in Small Animals
Liver Biopsy in Small Animals
Pathologic Changes in Bile in Small Animals
Nutrition in Hepatic Disease in Small Animals
Fulminant Hepatic Failure in Small Animals
Hepatic Encephalopathy in Small Animals
Portal Hypertension and Ascites in Small Animals
Portosystemic Vascular Malformations in Small Animals
Acquired Portosystemic Shunts in Small Animals
Other Hepatic Vascular Disorders in Small Animals
Hepatotoxins in Small Animals
Infectious Diseases of the Liver in Small Animals
Feline Hepatic Lipidosis
Biliary Cirrhosis in Small Animals
Canine Cholangiohepatitis
Canine Chronic Hepatitis
Lobular Dissecting Hepatitis in Small Animals
Canine Vacuolar Hepatopathy
Metabolic Diseases Affecting the Liver in Small Animals
Hepatocutaneous Syndrome in Small Animals
Nodular Hyperplasia in Small Animals
Hepatic Neoplasia in Small Animals
Miscellaneous Liver Diseases in Small Animals
Diseases of the Gallbladder and Extrahepatic Biliary System in Small Animals
Cholecystitis in Small Animals
Canine Gallbladder Mucocele
Other Disorders of the Gallbladder in Small Animals
Other Disorders of the Bile Ducts in Small Animals
Extrahepatic Bile Duct Obstruction in Small Animals
Cholelithiasis in Small Animals
Biliary Tree Rupture and Bile Peritonitis in Small Animals
Feline Cholangitis/Cholangiohepatitis Syndrome
Hepatobiliary Fluke Infection in Small Animals
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