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Blood Loss Anemia in Animals

By

Steven L. Marks

, BVSc, MS, MRCVS, DACVIM (SAIM), North Carolina State College of Veterinary Medicine;


Allison Kendall

, DVM, MS, DACVIM, North Carolina State University

Last full review/revision Sep 2019 | Content last modified Oct 2019
Topic Resources

Acute blood loss can lead to shock and even death if >30%–40% of blood is lost and the hypovolemia that develops is not treated aggressively with IV fluids or compatible blood Blood Transfusions in Animals Frequently, the need for blood transfusions is acute, as in acute hemolysis or hemorrhage; transfusions are also appropriate in treatment of acute or chronic anemias. Animals with hemostatic... read more , or both. Causes of acute loss can be known (eg, trauma, surgery) or occult (eg, GI blood loss). Coagulopathies, bleeding tumors, gastric ulceration, and external or internal parasites should be excluded as causes. GI parasites, such as Haemonchus in ruminants and hookworms in dogs, can lead to severe blood loss, especially in young animals. Low-grade, chronic blood loss eventually results in iron-deficiency anemia, although some degree of reticulocytosis may persist even after iron stores become depleted. The hallmark of an iron-deficiency anemia is microcytic, hypochromic anemia. This chronic blood loss can be due to some type of parasitism in young animals (eg, fleas, lice, intestinal parasitism), but in older animals, bleeding from GI ulcers or tumors is more common.

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Circulatory System
A 10-year-old, male-castrated golden retriever has a 1-month history of mild lethargy and decreased appetite. On physical examination, he has pale mucous membranes and weak femoral pulses. His complete blood count (CBC) shows a decreased packed cell volume (PCV), decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and decreased mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). His biochemistry panel shows a mildly increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level and mildly increased serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level. Which of the following is the most likely cause of this dog’s anemia? 
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