Causes of slaframine toxicosis include the ingestion of forages, particularly clovers, infected with the fungus Rhizoctonia leguminicola, which produces the toxic alkaloid slaframine. Profuse ptyalism is often the only clinical sign. Affected animals have no evidence of oral ulceration or other oral lesions. Ptyalism resolves once the animal is removed from the affected forage. The differential diagnoses for large animals (particularly ruminants) include bluetongue Overview of Bluetongue Bluetongue is an infectious arthropod-borne viral disease primarily of domestic and wild ruminants. Infection with bluetongue virus (BTV) is common in a broad band across the world, which until... read more , vesicular stomatitis Vesicular Stomatitis in Large Animals Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is a viral disease of livestock transmitted primarily by biting flies and midges. The disease results in characteristic vesicular lesions that can occur on the muzzle... read more , vesicular exanthema Vesicular Exanthema of Swine Vesicular exanthema of swine (VES) is an acute, highly infectious disease characterized by fever and formation of vesicles on the snout, oral mucosa, soles of the feet, coronary bands, and between... read more , and foot-and-mouth disease Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Animals Foot-and-mouth disease is one of the world's most economically important viral diseases of livestock. The virus infects cattle, pigs, and sheep and many cloven-hoofed wildlife species. The infection... read more .