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Introduction to Blood Disorders of Dogs

By

Susan M. Cotter

, DVM, DACVIM (Small Animal Internal Medicine and Oncology), Tufts University

Last full review/revision Dec 2017 | Content last modified Dec 2017
Topic Resources

Blood cells form and develop mostly in the bone marrow, that is, the tissue located in the cavities of bones. Blood performs a variety of important functions as it circulates throughout the body. It delivers oxygen and vital nutrients (such as vitamins, minerals, fats, and sugars) to the tissues. It carries carbon dioxide to the lungs to be exhaled and waste products to the kidneys and liver to be eliminated from the body. It transports hormones, which are chemical messengers, to various parts of the body, allowing those parts to communicate with each other. Blood also includes cells that fight infection and control bleeding.

There are 3 cellular elements of blood: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Basically, red blood cells supply the body with oxygen, white blood cells protect against infection, and platelets start the formation of blood clots.

Types of Blood Cells*

*See chapter text for descriptions and functions.

Blood is a complex mixture of plasma (the liquid component), red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

Blood is a complex mix of plasma (the liquid component), red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

Blood disorders are quite diverse. They can occur as normal responses to abnormal situations; for example, a significant increase in the number of white blood cells in response to an infection or disease. They may also occur as primary abnormalities of the blood; for example, a deficiency of all cellular elements of the blood due to bone marrow failure. Furthermore, abnormalities may be quantitative (too many or too few cells) or qualitative (abnormalities in the way cells function). It is helpful to understand what the names of some blood disorders mean, as they often provide a description of the disorder itself (see Table: Suffixes Used in Names of Blood Disorders Suffixes Used in Names of Blood Disorders Blood cells form and develop mostly in the bone marrow, that is, the tissue located in the cavities of bones. Blood performs a variety of important functions as it circulates throughout the... read more ).

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Just as there are various blood types in humans, there are multiple blood types in dogs, cats, horses, and other animals. A few blood banks for animals have been established. Like human blood banks, they depend on donated blood and can provide type-matched blood for use in emergencies or surgeries.

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Test your knowledge

Fluid Therapy in Animals
Abnormalities of circulation can be due to a number of causes and may result in circulatory shock, an emergency situation. All types of circulatory shock respond to administration of fluid therapy to some extent, but some types require additional medications. Which type of circulatory shock is most readily handled with fluid therapy alone?
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