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Pulmonary Edema in Dogs

By

Ned F. Kuehn

, DVM, MS, DACVIM, Michigan Veterinary Specialists

Last full review/revision Jun 2018 | Content last modified Jun 2018

Pulmonary edema, the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the tissue, airways, or air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs, may occur along with circulatory disorders or in some allergic reactions or infectious diseases. Head trauma can cause pulmonary edema in dogs. Labored breathing, with an increased rate, and open-mouth breathing may occur. Animals stand or sit rather than lie down, or lie only on their breast bone. The veterinarian may be able to hear crackling noises, normal sounds, or a complete lack of breathing sounds in the chest. Oxygen supplementation can provide short-term relief, but treatment of the primary cause is also necessary. Medications called diuretics are typically used to remove excessive fluid from the lungs.

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Calcium, in its ionic form, plays a key role in the function of many body systems. Precise control of calcium ion concentrations in extracellular fluids is regulated by several hormones. Which of the following is NOT involved in calcium homeostasis?
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