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Professional Version

Dipterans with Biting Mouthparts

By

Jan Šlapeta

, MVDr, PhD, GradCertEd (Higher Ed), Sydney School of Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney

Last full review/revision Aug 2022 | Content last modified Sep 2022

Blood-feeding dipterans can be classified based on which sexes feed on vertebrate blood and on food preference. In certain species of dipterans, only the females feed on vertebrate blood, which is required for egg laying; these species include black flies Black Flies of Animals Members of the family Simulidae are commonly called black flies (although their coloration may vary from black to gray to yellow to olive) or buffalo gnats (because their thorax is humped over... read more , sand flies Sand Flies of Animals The phlebotomine sand flies, Phlebotomus spp (Old World sand flies) and Lutzomyia spp (New World sand flies), are members of the family Psychodidae. These flies are confined primarily... read more , biting midges Biting Midges of Animals The biting midges, “no-see-ums,” or punkies belong to the family Ceratopogonidae. The most common biting midges are Culicoides spp. They are associated with aquatic or semiaquatic habitats... read more , mosquitoes Mosquitoes of Animals Mosquitoes are members of the family Culicidae. Important genera include Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Culiseta, and Psorophora. Although they are tiny, fragile... read more , horse flies Horse Flies and Deer Flies Tabanus spp (horse flies) and Chrysops spp (deer flies) are large (up to 3.5 cm long), heavy bodied, robust dipterans with powerful wings and very large eyes. They are swift fliers... read more , and deer flies Horse Flies and Deer Flies Tabanus spp (horse flies) and Chrysops spp (deer flies) are large (up to 3.5 cm long), heavy bodied, robust dipterans with powerful wings and very large eyes. They are swift fliers... read more . In other species of blood-feeding dipterans, both male and female flies feed on vertebrate blood; these species include stable flies Stable Flies The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, is often called the biting house fly. It is about the same in size and general appearance as Musca domestica, the house fly. It is brownish... read more , horn flies Horn Flies of Cattle The common name of Haematobia irritans comes from the fact that these flies often cluster in the hundreds around the base of the horns of cattle. This major pest of cattle is found in... read more , buffalo flies Buffalo Flies of Cattle Buffalo flies, Haematobia irritans exigua, are similar to horn flies in size and appearance and in feeding and breeding habits. The buffalo fly is a primary pest of cattle and water buffalo... read more Buffalo Flies of Cattle , tsetse flies Tsetse Flies The tsetse flies, Glossina spp, are important blood-feeding flies found in Africa (latitude 5°N to 20°S). Tsetse flies are narrow bodied, yellow to dark brown, and 6–13.5 mm long. When... read more , sheep keds Sheep Keds The sheep ked, Melophagus ovinus, is one of the most widely distributed and important external parasites of sheep. There are also keds that parasitize deer in North America (Lipoptena... read more , and hippoboscid or louse flies Hippoboscid or Louse Flies of Birds The hippoboscid or louse flies, Pseudolynchia and Lynchia spp, are winged versions of the keds. They infest many songbirds, raptors, and pigeons. The pigeon fly, P canariensis... read more .

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