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Trematodes Causing CNS Disease

By

Charles M. Hendrix

, DVM, PhD, Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University

Last full review/revision Jul 2013 | Content last modified Jul 2013

Paragonimiasis:

Paragonimus westermani and P kellicotti, the lung flukes, have been reported to migrate aberrantly and produce cysts in the brain and spinal cord of pigs, dogs, cats, rats, and people. Flukes in these extrapulmonic sites in dead-end hosts do not produce patent infections.

Schistosomiasis:

Schistosomes, or blood flukes, normally deposit their eggs in the small vessels of the gut and urinary bladder, from which they pass into the external environment via the feces or urine. Some eggs, however, may get into the general circulation and reach the CNS, where they become encapsulated. This condition has been noted in people and domestic animals.

Troglotremiasis:

Troglotrema acutum inhabits the frontal and ethmoidal sinuses of foxes and mustelids in Europe. Flukes live in pairs in cysts in these sinuses. These parasites cause decalcification and atrophy of the bony walls of the sinuses and eventually result in perforation into the cranial cavity. Microorganisms enter the cranial vault, leading to fatal, purulent meningitis. No treatment is available.

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Diseases of the Peripheral Nerves and Neuromuscular Junction
Laryngeal paralysis is a common disorder of older, large-breed dogs. Denervation of the cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle of the larynx causes the vocal folds and arytenoid cartilages to fail to abduct during inspiration, creating an upper airway obstruction. Although the etiology is usually unknown, trauma and neoplasia can cause laryngeal paralysis. Which of the following conditions can also cause laryngeal paralysis?
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