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Ergotism in Poultry


Frederic J. Hoerr

, DVM, PhD, Veterinary Diagnostic Pathology, LLC

Last full review/revision Sep 2019 | Content last modified Oct 2019

Toxic ergot alkaloids are produced by Claviceps spp, which grow on cereal grains. Rye is especially affected, but also wheat and other cereal grains. The mycotoxins form in the sclerotium, a visible, hard, dark mass of mycelium that displaces the grain tissue. Within the sclerotium are the ergot alkaloids, which target: the nervous system, causing convulsive and sensory neurologic disorders; the vascular system, causing vasoconstriction and gangrene of the extremities; and the endocrine system, including neuroendocrine control of the anterior pituitary gland. In chicks, the toes become discolored due to vasoconstriction and ischemia. In older birds, vasoconstriction affects the comb, wattles, face, and eyelids, which become atrophied and disfigured. Vesicles and ulcers develop on the shanks of the legs and on the tops and sides of the toes. Reductions in feed consumption and egg production are seen.

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Salmonella infections in poultry occur worldwide. A few Salmonella species are highly host-adapted, whereas others are able to infect a wide range of living creatures. Which of the following Salmonella species is highly adapted to chickens and turkeys?
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