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Introduction to Bone, Joint, and Muscle Disorders in Horses

By

Stephen B. Adams

, DVM, MS, DACVS, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University

Last full review/revision Apr 2019 | Content last modified May 2019

The musculoskeletal system includes the bones, cartilage, muscles, ligaments, joints, tendons, and other connective tissue. It supports the body, permits movement, and protects the vital organs. Because many other body systems (including the nervous system, blood vessels, and skin) are interrelated, disorders of one of these systems may also affect the musculoskeletal system.

Musculoskeletal disorders are common in horses, in part due to the fact that they are often expected to work, perform, or carry a rider, which places additional stress on the muscles and bones. Horses also have a complex anatomy of the front and hind limbs with a number of bones, tendons, and joints. Disorders of any of these musculoskeletal components can lead to lameness and other problems.

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Disorders of Calcium Metabolism
Calcium, in its ionic form, plays a key role in the function of many body systems. Precise control of calcium ion concentrations in extracellular fluids is regulated by several hormones. Which of the following is NOT involved in calcium homeostasis?
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