1–5 mg/kg, PO, once to twice daily
Maximal effects may require treatment for several weeks.
1 mg/kg/day, PO
Effects similar to those of amitriptyline but may be effective in some cases in which amitriptyline is not.
0.15 mg/kg, PO, once to twice daily for larger birds; 0.2 mg/kg, PO, 2 times a day for smaller species
Serious adverse effects, including anorexia, hepatic dysfunction, and CNS signs have been reported; most often used in cockatoos.
2 mg/kg/day, PO, once to twice daily
Effectiveness reported to vary; maximal effects may require treatment for several weeks.
Hormones (GnRH agonists)
4.7-mg and 9.5-mg implants, SC, dorsal back between scapulas or IM in the breast muscle every 3–6 months as needed
Decreases sexual behavior by negative feedback, reducing production of sex hormones
300–800 mcg/kg, IM
Decreases sexual behavior by negative feedback, reducing production of sex hormones.
a All are extra-label usages.