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Drugs or poisons
Irritation associated with inflammation of the mouth or tongue, foreign objects in the mouth, tumors, injuries, or other defects of the mouth
Infectious diseases (such as rabies), the nervous form of distemper, or other convulsive disorders
Motion sickness, fear, nervousness, or excitement
Reluctance to swallow from irritation of the esophagus, stomach, or intestines
Injury, tumor, or foreign material under the tongue
Inflamed tonsils (tonsillitis)
Administration of medicine
Conformational defects of the mouth (eg, heavy, hanging lips)
Metabolic disorders (such as hepatic encephalopathy or kidney failure)
Abscess or other blockage or disorder of the salivary glands