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Drugs—nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (such as aspirin, phenylbutazone, ibuprofen, meloxicam, carprofen, flunixin meglumine, and firocoxib) and corticosteroids
Cancer—lymphoma, adenocarcinoma, leiomyoma, leiomyosarcoma, gastrinoma, and mast cell tumor
Disease of other organs or systems—-kidney or liver disease, shock, low adrenal gland function, blood poisoning, spinal injury, and pancreatitis
Other causes—stomach outlet obstruction, inflammatory bowel disease, chronic stomach inflammation, stress, extreme exercise