Most commonly detected laterally, probably for biomechanical and imaging reasons, these injuries can be detected with ultrasonography. Medial collateral ligaments are more difficult to image but can be assessed. Radiographs may document new bone (enthesiophytes) associated with injury. A number are found by scintigraphy, associated with a “hot spot” even in the absence of radiographic changes. Prognosis depends on the severity of the injury. At this time, no proven therapies exist to augment ligament healing. A number of treatments have been tried, including intra-articular medication, periligamentous injection of biologics (eg, platelet-rich plasma), systemic disease-modifying drugs, and extracorporeal shockwave therapy.
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