Salmonella infections are classified as nonmotile serotypes (S enterica Pullorum Pullorum Disease in Poultry The historical name for this disease is bacillary white diarrhea. Pullorum disease is caused by Salmonella enterica Pullorum and is characterized by very high mortality in young chickens and... read more and S enterica Gallinarum Fowl Typhoid The causal agent of fowl typhoid is Salmonella enterica Gallinarum. The incidence of fowl typhoid is low in the USA, Canada, and some European countries but is much higher in other countries... read more ) and the many motile paratyphoid Paratyphoid Infections in Poultry Paratyphoid infections caused by non-host-adapted Salmonella are of public health significance because of contamination and mishandling of poultry products. S enterica Enteritidis is a major... read more Salmonella. These Salmonella infections have a worldwide distribution. As a result of the institution of a testing and control program in the USA through the USDA-administered National Poultry Improvement Plan, the incidence of S enterica Pullorum or S enterica Gallinarum infection has decreased dramatically. Historically, S enterica Arizonae was placed in its own category, but it is now included with the paratyphoid Salmonella. S enterica Arizonae is an egg-transmitted disease primarily of young turkeys. In addition to the above nonmotile salmonellae, Salmonella paratyphoid infections in poultry are relatively common and have public health significance because of contaminated poultry product consumption.
S enterica Pullorum and S enterica Gallinarum are highly host-adapted to chickens and turkeys. There are >2,500 nonhost-adapted species (paratyphoid) that may be transmitted to almost all animals.