Nitrogen dioxide is a major component of silo gas; in humans, the disease associated with exposure to NO2 is termed "silo filler’s disease". Exposure of cattle results in respiratory distress and necropsy findings of atypical interstitial pneumonia. Treatment is empirical and includes diuretics, corticosteroids, and antimicrobials to prevent pneumonia.
Zinc oxide is produced during oxyacetylene cutting or arc welding of galvanized pipes; when performed in closed facilities in which cattle are housed, respiratory toxicity may result. Lesions are similar to those described for atypical interstitial pneumonia. Treatment is as described for nitrogen dioxide toxicity.