MSD Manual

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Gema Álvarez García, DVM, PhD, DEVPC

Specialties and Expertise

  • Animal health; Veterinary parasitology; Diseases of domestic ruminants; Reproductive failure; Zoonoses



  • DVM and PhD: Complutense University of Madrid

Board Certifications

  • Diplomate, European Veterinary Parasitology College (EVPC)

Select Awards, Achievements, and Publications

  • López Ureña NM, Chaudhry U, . . . , Álvarez García G. Contamination of soil, water, fresh produce, and bivalve mollusks with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts: a systematic review. Microorganisms. 2022;10(3):517.
  • Álvarez García G, Davidson R, Jokelainen P, Klevar S, Spano F, Seeber F. Identification of oocyst-driven Toxoplasma gondii infections in humans and animals through stage-specific serology—current status and future perspectives. Microorganisms. 2021;9(11):2346.
  • Jiménez-Meléndez A, Ramakrishnan C, Hehl AB, Russo G, Álvarez-García G. RNA-Seq analyses reveal that endothelial activation and fibrosis are induced early and progressively by Besnoitia besnoiti host cell invasion and proliferation. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2020;10:218.
  • González-Barrio D, Diezma-Díaz C, . . . , Álvarez-García G. Vascular wall injury and inflammation are key pathogenic mechanisms responsible for early testicular degeneration during acute besnoitiosis in bulls. Parasit Vectors. 2020;13(1):113.
  • Alvarez-García G, Frey CF, Mora LM, Schares G. A century of bovine besnoitiosis: an unknown disease re-emerging in Europe. Trends Parasitol. 2013 Aug;29(8):407-415.

Manual Chapters and Commentaries