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Dietary Fat-Soluble Vitamin Requirements of Beef Cattle

Dietary Fat-Soluble Vitamin Requirements of Beef Cattle



Production Class

Per Animal, in IU/lb (IU/kg) of body weight

By Feed Content,c in IU/lb (IU/kg) of dry matter


Growing and finishing cattle

21 (46.2)

1,000 (2,200)]

Pregnant females

27 (59.4)

1,270 (2,794)

Lactating females and breeding bulls

38 (83.6)

1,770 (3,894)


All classes

2.6 (5.7)

125 (275)


Highly stressed, newly received calves

0.9 (2.0)

227 (499)

All other classes of cattle

0.3 (0.7)

16 (35)

a1 IU of vitamin A = 0.3 mcg of all-trans retinol, 0.344 mcg of retinyl acetate, or 0.55 mcg of retinyl palmitate; 1 IU of vitamin D = 0.025 mcg of cholecalciferol; 1 IU of vitamin E = 1 mg of all racemic alpha-tocopherol acetate.

bValues adapted from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle. 8th rev. ed. National Academies Press; 2016.

cConsult with a nutritionist to determine the proper methods of sampling and assessing feedstuff nutrient content.