Immune-mediated ocular disease is not uncommon in dogs. This can include keratoconjunctivitis sicca, immune-mediated keratoconjunctivitis (pannus), extraocular muscle myositis, episcleritis, nodular granulomatous episclerokeratitis, and immune-mediated uveitis (uveodermatologic syndrome) associated with an immune reaction to melanin (seen in a number of breeds, more commonly those of Arctic origin). Immune-mediated ocular disease can be managed by topical, systemic, or a combination of both, that may also be in conjunction with topical and systemic corticosteroids. The drugs most commonly used other than glucocorticoids are cyclosporine, tacrolimus, mycophenolate, and azathioprine.
In addition to topical use, cyclosporine can be used systemically. Bioavailability is variable from different oral formulations. Dosage is 5 mg/kg, every 12 hours for 2 weeks, decreasing to every 24 hours if clinical improvement.
Mycophenolate mofetil can be administered at 7–20 mg/kg, every 12 hours for 3–4 weeks, then reducing the dose to 10 mg/kg/day.
Azathioprine can be administered orally (1.5–2 mg/kg/day, reducing the dose after 3–5 days).
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Also see pet health content regarding drugs used to treat eye disorders Drugs Used to Treat Eye Disorders The 3 primary methods of administering medications to the eye are topical, local ocular (such as under the conjunctival tissue or into the vitreous portion of the eye), and systemic (given by... read more .