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Professional Version

The Reproductive System in Animals


Harry W. Momont

, DVM, PhD, DACT, Department of Medical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Reviewed/Revised Aug 2020 | Modified Nov 2022
Topic Resources

The reproductive system provides the mechanism for the recombination of genetic material that allows for change and adaptation. Manipulation of this system in breeding management programs allows the rapid and dramatic alteration of the conformation and productivity of domestic animals. Theriogenology is the veterinary clinical specialty that deals with reproduction.

The reproductive system is incredibly complex in both its anatomy and physiology, and all aspects must be considered when resolving reproductive problems. The differences in the reproductive system between the sexes and among species are extensive. Both sexes have primary sex organs and primary regulatory centers. Gonads and function-adapted, tubular genital organs The Gonads and Tubular Genital Tract in Animals Both sexes have a pair of gonads (ovaries or testes). However, in birds the right ovary does not develop; only the left ovary and oviduct are present in adult females. The main functions of... read more constitute primary sex organs in both sexes. The pituitary gland and the hypothalamus are the primary regulatory centers; thus, the regulatory function is, in part, neuroendocrine in nature. In pregnant females, the fetoplacental unit has a significant role in maintaining and terminating pregnancy.

For the temporal and physiologic features of the reproductive cycles of selected species, and see Table: Approximate Incubation Periods Approximate Incubation Periods Approximate Incubation Periods and see Table: Features of the Reproductive Cycle Features of the Reproductive Cycle Features of the Reproductive Cycle .

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