Feline atopic dermatitis (AD) is similar to canine AD Canine Atopic Dermatitis Atopic dermatitis is characterized by chronic pruritis and a typical distribution of skins lesions. It is generally associated with IgE antibodies to environmental allergens to which susceptible... read more . It is a pruritic disease in which affected cats have a hypersensitivity reaction to inhaled or contacted environmental allergens. The age of onset is variable but generally is <5 years. The signs may be seasonal or nonseasonal. Purebred cats may have a higher risk than domestic shorthaired cats. As in dogs, pruritic cats may have several clinical presentations (eg, miliary dermatitis, symmetric alopecia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, head and neck pruritus) that are consistent with a diagnosis of AD but that must be differentiated from other diseases with similar clinical signs.
Differential diagnoses for feline atopic dermatitis include:
various mite infestations Mite Infestations in Animals Tightly adhered keratinous crusts along the ear margin in a case of sarcoptic mange. Sarcoptes scabiei is a common mange mite in pigs and dogs, and Notoedres cati (figure)is common... read more (eg, Cheyletiella, Demodex, Notoedres, Sarcoptes, Otodectes)
mosquito bite hypersensitivity
autoimmune disease (eg, pemphigus foliaceus)
A thorough review of the cat’s history and complete dermatologic and physical examination, along with the standard flea combing, skin scrapings, and fungal cultures, are mandatory first steps. The diagnosis of AD is made when the other differential diagnoses have been eliminated. Response to glucocorticoids is excellent initially but may decrease over time.
Intradermal allergy testing and hyposensitization procedures in cats are similar to those used in dogs, but the intradermal test results are more difficult to read because the reactions are less dramatic and dissipate more rapidly in cats. The same avoidance recommendations made for dogs apply to cats. Symptomatic therapy includes control of secondary infections and use of antipruritic drugs. The approved formulation of cyclosporine for use in cats is liquid; the dosage is 7 mg/kg, and it can be administered PO or in food. After 30 days, the dosage can be tapered to every other day in ~70% of cats and to twice a week in ~50% of cats. Response to immunotherapy is similar to that in dogs Immunotherapy Atopic dermatitis is characterized by chronic pruritis and a typical distribution of skins lesions. It is generally associated with IgE antibodies to environmental allergens to which susceptible... read more ; owners are advised to commit to 1 year of therapy before deciding its usefulness.
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Also see pet health content regarding dermatitis and dermatologic problems in cats Dermatitis and Dermatologic Problems in Cats Dermatitis is a general word for any type of inflammation of the skin. It is usually used until a specific diagnosis is reached. There are many causes of skin inflammation, including external... read more .